I, me and my fat, Part 10
Prof. Noakes uses the term “Banting” for a low-carb, high-fat diet (LCHF). This diet is named after William Banting, in 1862, a popular London undertaker , who was terribly obese. He was the first guinea pig of the LCHF diet. He reduced his weight so drastically that his approach became known as the Banting diet. Banting consists mainly of
- animal proteins and saturated animal fats – all meats, poultry and game (EXCEPT luncheon meats, vegetarian protein/unfermented soya); all natural and cured meats and sausages (parma ham, salami, bacon, chorizo EXCEPT vienna sausages, cured meats with excessive sugar); all sea food (EXCEPT swordfish and tilefish – high in mercury); all eggs; broths.
- All fats – coconut oil, olive oil, avocado oil, macadamia oil, butter, ghee, lard, full fat mayonnaise (not made from seed oils!);
- NO seed oils – canola, sunflower, cottonseed, grape seed, corn, safflower)
- all dairy products (EXCEPT: cheese spreads, coffee creamers, ice-cream, any 2% or fat-free milk or yoghurt; soy milk, almond milk, rice milk, condensed milk.)
- some nuts and seeds – almonds, walnuts, pecan nuts, macadamia nuts, pine nuts, flax seeds, pumpkin and sunflower seeds; limit cashews and chestnuts.
- fresh vegetables grown mostly above the ground (salad greens – 2 cups/day; all fibrous vegetables – 1 cup (uncooked)/day).
- NO fruit juice; no vegetable juices, except the home-made ones on the green list; limit butternut , carrots, sweet potatoes ;
- NO starchy vegetables – potatoes, peas, legumes, beetroots.
- LIMITED fruits; berries are lower in sugar.
- NO grains – wheat, barley, rye, oats, rice, corn /corn products, couscous, millet, pasta, noodles, all forms of bread, crackers, breakfast cereals/ muesli/ granola, breaded foods, all flours from grains, no gravy powder/ stock cubes/maize starch.
- NO SUGARS – agave, fructose, honey, syrups, cordials, energy drinks, sweets, dried fruit, malt.
- Sweeteners – stevia powder, xylitol granules, erythritol granules (EXCEPT artificial sweeteners – aspartame, saccharin, etc.);
- NO fast foods, processed foods.
- NO food with added sugar (glucose, dextrose).
- NO soya products.
- NO hydrogenated/partially hydrogenated oils/ trans fats (margarine, vegetable oils/fats)
- NO beer, cider, fizzy drinks ( lite/zero/diet )
- Purified water is the best!
I, me and my fat- part 9
Before 1960, physicians believed carbohydrates cause obesity and abstinence from starches, flour and sugars, is the obvious method of cure and prevention. After 1960, when the physicians stopped believing it, the current epidemic of obesity and diabetes started. Health officials believed that dietary fat causes heart disease (especially saturated fat) and eating carbohydrates are heart healthy and will prevent heart disease. The myth of the FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID was born!. At the bottom of the pyramid would be the staple of your “healthy” diet ; the “fat-free” carbohydrates (bread, cereals, rice, pasta group – 6-11 servings) and at the top of the pyramid, to be used sparingly, would be the fats and oils, with meat (2-3 servings) near the top as well. The food pyramid didn’t take the science of fat metabolism into consideration: carbohydrate is driving insulin is driving fat !. Carbohydrates were thought to be “heart-healthy” and couldn’t be reconciled with the idea that carbohydrates make us fat!.
The RDA protein intake for vegetarians should be 0.9g/kg/day (0.41g/pd/day) – adult male vegan is around 63g/day; adult female vegans is around 52 g/day – considering some plant proteins are being digested somewhat differently from animal proteins and for the amino acid mix in some plant proteins.
It is very easy for a vegan diet to meet the recommendations for protein. Vegans eating VARIED diets containing vegetables, beans, grains, nuts and seeds, rarely have any difficulty getting enough protein as long as their diet contains enough calories (energy) to maintain weight. Some of the best vegetarian protein sources are: quinoa, green peas, nuts and nut butter, beans, chickpeas, tempeh and tofu, edamame, leafy greens, hemp, chia seeds, sesame and sunflower seeds, seitan, non-dairy milk, unsweetened cocoa powder.
Nutritional status is extremely important in wound healing. Maintenance of anabolism and controlling catabolism is critical to optimize the healing process. Increased protein intake is required to keep up with catabolic losses and allow wound healing anabolic activity. Protein as a micronutrient, is inappropriately used for fuel after injury, so intake needs to be increased to allow for protein synthesis. Supplementation with GLUTAMINE improves wound healing and immunity and decrease trauma and burn-induced mortality.
After injuries, shock, trauma, burns, pancreatitis and sepsis, the resulting hypermetabolism and catabolism can cause malnutrition. The goal of clinical nutrition is to modify the stress response below the extreme, positively influence recovery and give optimum nutrition support with amino acids. After a variety of injuries mentioned above, patients develop a systemic inflammatory response, which is beneficial if it resolves as the patient recovers. If this inflammatory response is exaggerated or perpetuated, severe disturbances in protein metabolism may arise. The resulting hypermetabolism and catabolism can cause acute protein malnutrition, with impairment in immune function and multiple organ dysfunction, like acute renal failure.
Protein anabolism (protein synthesis) and protein catabolism (protein breakdown) occurs within an individual simultaneously, involving up to 50% of the body protein at any one time. Nitrogen balance refers to the incoming and outgoing food nitrogen in an organism long-term. Nitrogen equilibrium exists in an individual when the nitrogen intake (protein nitrogen) equals the waste nitrogen output. The nitrogen balance is zero (not positive or negative) in healthy adults with an adequate diet.
During growth, pregnancy and lactation, or during rehabilitation after a disease or malnutrition, total anabolism exceeds total catabolism. More dietary nitrogen is retained to support body protein synthesis and less is excreted as nitrogenous waste (POSITIVE NITROGEN BALANCE).
As mentioned above, amino acids are required for protein synthesis in growth, maintenance and repair. Some of the amino acids can be synthesized in the body as the need arises (nonessential amino acids), while others must be supplied by the ingested food (essential amino acids). The nonessential amino acids are not biologically less important, but if there are essential amino acids missing in the diet, they may be synthesized from those available in the amino acid pool. There are 22 different natural amino acids. Eight are essential for adults : Phenylalanine, Methionine, Valine, Lysine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Threonine, Tryptophan. Nine are essential for growth and maintenance in children (also histidine). Fourteen are nonessential amino acids: e.g. Glycine, Alanine, Serine, Cystine, Tyrosine, Proline, Aspartic acid, glutamic acid etc.
To consume protein powders straight after a workout, is only essential, if you’re an endurance athlete or a tri-athlete, who train several times per day.
The primary goals of pre-and post-workout nutrition are to:
- Enhance athletic performance (improve stamina, mental focus, physical power)
- Positively affect body composition (recovery for building muscle, minimize muscle damage, losing weight).
Pre- and post- work out nutrition ISN’T one-size-fits-all-scenario. It varies, depending on the particular type of activity as well as duration and time-of-day.
Protein (albumin) is digested into smaller molecular components , amino acids and peptides, which give protein it’s nutritional impact. Individuals may consume adequate amounts of total protein BUT still be deficient in specific amino acids, because of the quality of the protein. Therefore the PROTEIN QUALITY or AMINO ACID COMPOSITION is more important, than the total protein intake. The total protein intake does not account for the TYPE OF PROTEIN and how it relates to food-allergy conditions and the immune system. Therefore it is necessary to understand the metabolic role of protein!.