I, me and my fat- part 9
Before 1960, physicians believed carbohydrates cause obesity and abstinence from starches, flour and sugars, is the obvious method of cure and prevention. After 1960, when the physicians stopped believing it, the current epidemic of obesity and diabetes started. Health officials believed that dietary fat causes heart disease (especially saturated fat) and eating carbohydrates are heart healthy and will prevent heart disease. The myth of the FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID was born!. At the bottom of the pyramid would be the staple of your “healthy” diet ; the “fat-free” carbohydrates (bread, cereals, rice, pasta group – 6-11 servings) and at the top of the pyramid, to be used sparingly, would be the fats and oils, with meat (2-3 servings) near the top as well. The food pyramid didn’t take the science of fat metabolism into consideration: carbohydrate is driving insulin is driving fat !. Carbohydrates were thought to be “heart-healthy” and couldn’t be reconciled with the idea that carbohydrates make us fat!.
I, me and my fat, Part 7
In 1970, LDL, was called the bad cholesterol, because it was thought the cholesterol caused the buildup of plaque in our arteries. Now in 2010, they say it is not the cholesterol carried by the LDL that is to blame for heart disease, but the particle (Low-Density Lipoprotein or LDL) itself. Also, not all LDL particles appear to be equally harmful. The large and buoyant LDL particles are harmless, but it is the small, dense ones, that form plaques in the wall of our arteries.
Carbohydrate-rich diets, not only lower HDL and raise triglycerides, but they also make LDL small and dense!. These 3 effects increase our risk of heart disease. When we eat high-fat diets and avoid carbohydrates the opposite happens: HDL goes up, triglycerides go down and the LDL becomes larger and buoyant.
I, me and my fat, Part 6
- It violates the law of calories-in/calories-out (promise weight loss without having to eat less or exercise)
- It is an unbalanced diet, because it restricts the nutrient category – carbohydrates.
- High- saturated fat diets cause heart disease (raises our cholesterol)
DISMANTLING THESE ARGUMENTS:
Restricting carbohydrates, leads to weight loss and fat loss, independent of the calories we consume from dietary fat and protein (discussed in detail above). The law of thermodynamics has nothing to do with it!
The argument that a diet restricting fattening carbohydrates, will be lacking in essential nutrients (vitamins, minerals, amino acids), is nonsense!. The foods you are avoiding are the fattening and nutrient-deficient starches, refined carbohydrates and sugars, NOT the nutrient–dense leafy green vegetables, salads, meat and eggs. Meat contains all the essential amino acids, essential fats and 12 of the 13 essential vitamins (vitamin C is scarce in animal products). Meat is a concentrated source of vitamin A and E, the entire vitamin B complex and vitamin B12 and D are only in animal products (Vitamin D also from sun exposure). We use B vitamins to metabolize glucose in our cells – so, the more carbohydrates we consume, the more glucose we burn and the more B vitamins we need from our diets. Insulin inhibits the uptake of vitamin C by the kidneys – so, when we eat carbohydrates we excrete vitamin C with our urine, instead of retaining it!. The isolated hunter-gatherer populations thrived during long winters on no carbohydrates and no green vegetables or fruit, but got enough vitamin C from animal products.
Naturally occurring saturated fats are primarily found in animal and dairy products (family #2 fats) and in some vegetable fats. To clarify: the words “saturated” and “hydrogenated” means the same thing chemically. However, if the words “hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated” appears on a label, it means the fat has been processed and is no longer in it’s natural form. When naturally occurring polyunsaturated fats (cis variety) are commercially changed by the process of hydrogenation and partial hydrogenation, they are altered to the trans variety and become harmful to the body.
All of the fats of family #1 and #3 are polyunsaturated fats (most food and fish oils), while the fats of family #2 need to be limited.
Cholesterol must be esterified to a fatty acid (EFA,) for transport in the blood.
Faulty lipid metabolism lies at the root of many degenerative diseases. It may be caused by:
- Too much of the wrong kinds of fats in our diet
- Too much total fat
- Deficiency of the right kinds of fats
- Deficiency of mineral and vitamin co-factors.
For health, all essential nutrients have to be in place, working together e.g. CANCER involves fatty degeneration. In animal experiments, it has been shown that cancer can be induced by deficiency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) – too many saturated fatty acids, too many calories, deficiency of zinc, iron, oxygen, vitamins A, C, E, B1 , B2 , B3 , pantothenic acid, sulphur , selenium, and protein (esp. methionine)- all lead to cancer!.
Cofactors in fat metabolism include enzymes, vitamins and minerals.
Every chemical reaction in metabolism require enzymes. Enzymes are proteins made according to our DNA, via blueprints of RNA. Enzymes are made in response to our body’s needs. Chemical reactions cannot occur without them. Enzymes are catalysts- they facilitate or dissolve associations between molecules. Specific enzymes facilitate specific interactions between specific molecules in a specific way, resulting in reliable molecular results that allow life to carry on.
Enzymes are allied with an essential mineral, which we get from foods e.g. over 80 enzymes ally themselves with zinc; for energy production, enzymes need magnesium. Several require copper; others need iron. Of the 20 minerals needed for our bodies to function, at least 12 of these help enzymes to function.
A cow is more trustworthy than chemists!!
- Butter is loaded with saturated fat and dietary cholesterol, which DOES NOT HARM THE BLOOD LIPID PROFILE. They raise the HDL (good) cholesterol and change the LDL cholesterol (from small dense LDL to large LDL), which is benign and not associated with heart disease.
NOTE: With a medical condition, like familial hypercholesterolemia, butter should be avoided.
- Butter contains about 9% stearic acid, 19% oleic acid and 38% palmitic acid, a total of 66% of it’s total fat content. These three compete for the enzymes that metabolize LA and ALA and in excess, can interfere with the functions of EFA’s, especially if the latter makes up less than about 5% of total fat content.
- Butter contains up to 6% trans fatty acids. They are produced by the bacteria in the stomach of cows. They are mainly trans-vaccenic acid, which is more easily metabolized than most trans fatty acids found in hydrogenated oils, fats, shortenings and margarines. Therefore, they constitute a minor risk to health.
“Trans” and “cis” refer to whether the ends of the fatty acid molecule are on the same side of the double bond (cis) or on opposite sides of the double bond (trans).
The half –life of cis fatty acids is 18 days – therefore the turnover of naturally occurring fatty acids is less than 3 weeks. In chronic patients, making changes with EFA supplementation often takes at least three weeks. A common therapy for hot flashes in women, has been a multiple EFA product taken for three weeks.
The half-life of trans fatty acids is 51 days – half of the bad fats from the potato chip you eat today are still in your body two months from now!
The levels of SATURATED FATS AND PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED FATS in the diet are far more important than the level of CHOLESTEROL in the diet for most people!
TRANS FATTY ACIDS are unnatural fatty acids, which are produced by the process of hydrogenation and partial hydrogenation of natural “cis” fatty acids. “Trans” and “cis” refer to whether the ends of the fatty acid molecule are on the same side of the double bond (cis) or on opposite sides of the double bond (trans). In nature, most double bonds are cis. Only a small percentage of fatty acids found in milk and meat products, occur as trans- fatty acids. Natural trans-fats have little or no effect on blood lipids. Some naturally occurring trans fatty acids, known as conjugated linoleic acids, have health benefits.
There are good fats and bad fats; and “good” Pgs (Prostaglandins) and “bad” Pgs. The PG1 and PG3 family are the “good” Pgs and the PG2 family is the “bad” PG. The PG2 family are in excess in our society and are therefore called “bad” prostaglandins. PG2 includes red meats and dairy fats , both of which are too high in the average diet, plus the trans fats, which allow PG2 to overrun the body.
PG2 cause negative effects, contributing to all the common degenerative illnesses. PG2’s cause platelet aggregation and increased blood clotting, increased blood pressure, asthma, menstrual cramps, increased tumor growth and inflammatory response with tissue damage and pain.